JKBOSE Class 10th Physics PDF Notes Download

JKBOSE Class 10th Physics Notes PDF Download

Download JKBOSE Class 10th Physics notes and get the important questions for the student of Jammu and Kashmir who are in class 10th. Important Study materials and Questions of Physics with PDF File for JKBOSE Class 10th students. In this article we provide important study materials notes of Physics for class 10th Students of Jammu and Kashmir.

JKBOSE Class 10th Physics Notes PDF Download.

Download JKBOSE Class 10th Physics PDF Notes

Unit 1 - Light- Reflection and Refraction

Reflection of light
Spherical mirrors
Image formation in Spherical Mirror 
Uses of spherical mirrors
Sign conventions for spherical mirrors
Relation between focal length and radius of curvature
Mirror formula of Spherical Mirror
Magnification of spherical mirror
Refraction of light
Refraction through a glass slab
Refractive index
Conditions for no refraction
Spherical lenses
Image formation in Spherical Lens 
Sign conventions of spherical lens
Lens formula
Magnification of spherical lens
Power of a spherical lens 

Unit 2 -  The Human Eye and the Colorful World

Human eye
Power of accommodation
Defects of vision and their correction
Glass prism - refraction and dispersion
Atmospheric refraction 
Twinkling of stars 
Color of sun at sunrise and sunset

Unit 3 -  Electricity

Concept of electric charge
Electric current
Electric potential 
Potential difference
Ohm's law and experimental verification
Resistance and its dependence
Combination of resistances in series and in parallel
Heating effect of current 
Electric power
Electric Energy 

Unit 4 -  Magnetic Effects of Current 

Orested Experiment
Magnetic field and field lines
Magnetic field due to a current carrying current – Straight coil 
Magnetic field due to a current carrying current  Solenoid
Force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field
Electric Motor
Domestic electric circuits

Unit 5 -  Sources of Energy

Various sources of energy
Conventional sources of energy  Biomass energy
Wind energy
Non- conventional sources of energy
Solar energy
Energy from sea
Nuclear energy 
Nuclear fusion
Nuclear fissions
Lasting of energy sources

Learning Objectives of JKBOSE Class 10th Physics 

The Jammu and Kashmir State Board of School Education (JKBOSE) follows the curriculum set by the National Educational Research and Training Council (NCERT) for Class 10 Physics. Specific learning objectives may vary slightly depending on the textbook version or any updates made by JKBOSE. However, the general teaching objectives here are usually included in Class 10 physics:

  • Describe the reflection of light and how it applies to spherical mirrors
  • Explain the creation of images using circular mirrors
  • Demonstrate the use of spherical mirrors in various applications 
  • Understand the conventions indicated for circular mirrors
  • Relating to the focal length for the radius of curvature of a circular mirror
  • Apply mirror formula to solve numerical problems related to spherical mirrors
  • Calculate the magnification of an image created by a circular mirror
  • Describe the refraction of light and how it goes through a glass slab
  • Define the refractive index and understand how it relates to the speed of light
  • Identify conditions under which light is not refracted
  • Explain the principles of image creation using a spherical lens
  • Understand the signal conventions for spherical lenses
  • Apply lens formula to solve numerical problems related to spherical lenses
  • Calculate the magnification and power of the lens.
  • Understand the anatomy and physiology of the human eye.
  • Learn about the power of housing and how it affects visual acuity.
  • Study common defects of vision and the methods used to correct them.
  • Understand the principles of refraction and dispersion through the use of glass prisms.
  • Learn about atmospheric refraction and the presence of stars and its effects on the color of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
  • Understand the concept of electric charge and its properties.
  • Learn about the concept of electric current and its relation to electric charge.
  • Understand the concepts of electric potential and potential difference and their relationship with electric current.
  • Learn about Om's law and its experimental validation.
  • Understand the concept of resistance and its dependence on various factors.
  • Learn about the combination of resistors in series and in parallel and their effects on electric current.
  • Solve numerical problems related to the concepts of electric charge, electric current, electric potential, potential difference, ohm's law, resistance and combination of resistances.
  • Understand the relation of current heat effects and resistance.
  • Understand the principles and methodology of performing an orested experiment
  • Understand the concept of magnetic field and how to identify and interpret field lines
  • Understand the relationship between a current carrying conductor and a magnetic field that generates specifically for straight wires, coils, and solenoids
  • Understand the effect of a magnetic field on a driver carrying a stream and the force exerted by it
  • Understand the basic principles and operation of electric motors
  • Understand the basic concepts and components of a domestic electric circuit.
  • Understand different types of energy sources and their uses.
  • Learn about traditional sources of energy and the ways in which technology has improved their use.
  • Understand the concept and use of non-traditional sources of energy such as solar and marine energy.
  • Learn about nuclear power and various types of nuclear reactions (conflation and fragmentation).
  • Understand the sustainable energy sources and their impact on the environment.

Important Questions of JKBOSE Class 10th Physics Subject

What is the difference between a fuse and a circuit breaker?

Ans: Both a fuse and a circuit breaker are electrical protection devices that are used to protect the circuit from excessive current. The main difference between them is their operating system. The fuse is a thin wire that melts when the current exceeds a certain limit, causing the circuit to break and stop the flow ahead of the current. Once the fuse melts, it has to be replaced. On the other hand, a circuit breaker is an electromechanical device that automatically closes the circuit when overloaded or short circuited. It can be reset and reused after tripping.

Explain the working principle of electric motor?

Ans: An electric motor is a device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. It works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. When a current-carrier conductor is placed in a magnetic field, a force is applied to the conductor. This force is perpendicular to the direction of both the stream and the magnetic field and follows Fleming's left-hand law. The force causes the conductor to rotate, and this rotational speed is used to perform mechanical work.

What is the principle behind working an electric generator?

Ans: An electric generator works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. When a conductor passes through a magnetic field or when a magnetic field changes through the conductor, an induced current is generated in the conductor. This current arises due to the relative motion between the conductor and the magnetic field. The induced current can be tapped and collected through the slip ring and brush in the generator, Whereby mechanical energy ( rotation of coil or turbine ) can be converted into electrical energy.

What is electromagnetic induction?

Ans: Electromagnetic induction is the process of generating electric current in a conductor that separates the magnetic field around it. When there is a relative speed between a conductor and a magnetic field or when a magnetic field passing through a conductor changes, So an induced electromotive force is generated. According to Faraday and Lenz's rules, this induced EMF gives rise to an induced stream in conductors.

Explain the process of charging by induction?

Ans: Charging by induction is a method of charging objects without direct contact. This involves bringing a charged object to an unchanged object, redistributing the charges. When a charged object is brought close to an unknown object, the charges in the unchanged object are rearranged. In the unchanged object, opposite charges are attracted to the charged object, while the same charges are aborted. This separation of charges leads to an overall charge on the unchanged object.

What is the role of step-up transformers in the transmission of electrical energy?

Ans: A step-up transformer is used in the transmission of electrical energy over long distances. It is designed to increase the voltage of electrical energy while reducing current. This is done to reduce energy loss during transmission. By increasing the voltage, electricity can be transmitted with low currents, reducing the resistive losses in transmission lines. At the receiving end, a phase-down transformer is used to reduce the voltage to a usable level.

Define the term Power Rating of an electrical device?

Ans: The power rating of an electrical device refers to the rate at which the device consumes electrical energy or the rate at which it converts electrical energy into other forms is ।  It is usually expressed in watts (W). Power ratings indicate how much electric power is required or distributed by the equipment. It helps determine the capacity of the power supply required for the equipment and also provides information about the operating cost and efficiency of the equipment.

Explain why an electric bulb is less efficient than a fluorescent lamp?

Ans: An electric bulb (Fluorescent Bulb ) is less efficient than a fluorescent lamp because of the various mechanisms by which they produce light. In an electric bulb, a filament is heated to a high temperature by passing an electric current through it. As a result, the filament emits light, but it also emits a significant amount of heat energy ।  This heat energy is wasted and does not convert to light, which disables electric bulbs. On the other hand, fluorescent lamps use a different process called fluorescence, where an electrical discharge through the gas stimulates phosphor coatings inside the lamp, Which then emits visible light. This process is more energy-efficient because it produces less heat and more light than an electric bulb.

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Important Questions from JKBOSE Class 10th Physics

Describe the refraction of light and how it occurs through a glass slab?

Refraction is the bending of light as it passes through a material with a different refractive index. When light passes through a glass slab it is refracted or bent because the light travels at a different speed through the glass than it does through air. This difference in speed causes the light to change direction as it passes through the glass which results in the bending of the light. The amount of bending depends on the thickness of the glass slab and the angle at which the light strikes the surface of the glass.

Explain heating effect of current?

The heating effect of current refers to the phenomenon where an electric current passing through a conductor generates heat. This occurs due to the resistance of the conductor which causes the electrons to collide with the atoms of the material and transfer their kinetic energy to them thereby increasing the temperature of the conductor. The amount of heat generated is proportional to the square of the current and the resistance of the conductor as described by Joule's law (P = I² × R). This effect is commonly observed in electrical appliances such as toasters, electric heaters and lightbulbs where the current passing through the heating element causes it to heat up and produce heat. It can also occur in electrical wiring and other components leading to potential fire hazards if the current is too high or the wiring is damaged.

Difference between conventional and Non-conventional sources of energy?

Conventional sources of energy refer to traditional forms of energy production such as coal, oil and natural gas. These sources are widely used and have been in use for many years. They are also known as fossil fuels as they are formed from the remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago.

Non-conventional sources of energy on the other hand refer to alternative forms of energy production such as solar, wind and hydropower. These sources are considered to be renewable as they do not deplete over time. They are also considered to be more environmentally friendly as they do not produce harmful emissions like conventional sources do.

In summary conventional sources of energy are traditional and widely used but have negative environmental impacts while non-conventional sources are alternative and more environmentally friendly but are not as widely used.

Difference between reflection and refrection of light?

Reflection and refraction are two different phenomena that occur when light interacts with a surface or a medium.

Reflection is the bouncing back of light from a surface such as a mirror or a calm body of water. When light strikes a reflective surface it is bounced back in the same direction it came from. The angle of incidenceis the angle at which the light strikes the surface is equal to the angle of reflection is the angle at which the light bounces back.

Refraction is the bending of light as it passes through a medium with different refractive indices such as a prism or a glass lens. When light passes through a medium with a different refractive index than the medium it is coming from it bends or refracts. The amount of bending depends on the angle of incidence and the refractive index of the medium.

Explain power of accommodation?

The power of accommodation refers to the ability of the eye's lens to change its shape in order to focus on objects at different distances. This process is controlled by the ciliary muscle which surrounds the lens and can contract or relax to change the curvature of the lens. As the ciliary muscle relaxes the lens flattens and allowing the eye to focus on distant objects. As the ciliary muscle contracts the lens thickens, allowing the eye to focus on close objects. This process is known as accommodation and is essential for clear vision at all distances.

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