JKBOSE Class 12th Computer Science Notes | Study Materials

JKBOSE Class 12th Computer Science Notes

JKBOSE Class 12th Computer Science Notes | Study Materials
JKBOSE Class 12th Computer Science Notes PDF Download. If you are the students of Jammu and Kashmir and are looking for important questions and Notes of Computer Science Subject then you are at right place. Get JKBOSE important Study Materials Notes of all the subjects for Class 12th in this site but in this article we will provide you Computer Science Notes for Class 12th. So keep visiting and get the free and best notes.  

JKBOSE Class 12th Computer Science Study Material Notes Unit Wise

Unit- 1 Object Oriented Programming in C++   

Object Oriented Programming: Object Oriented Programming (OOP) in C++ is a programming paradigm that allows the creation and manipulation of objects. Here are some key points about Object Oriented Programming in C++:
  • Objects: OOP emphasizes the concept of objects which are instances of classes. Objects encapsulate data and behavior into a single entity allowing for modular and organized code.
  • Classes: Classes are blueprints or templates for creating objects. They define the structure and behavior of objects including data members (attributes) and member functions (methods).
  • Encapsulation: Encapsulation is the process of bundling data and related methods together within a class. It provides data hiding and abstraction allowing objects to interact with each other through well-defined interfaces.
  • Inheritance: Inheritance is a mechanism that allows a class to inherit properties and behaviors from another class. It promotes code reuse and supports the concept of a hierarchy of classes. In C++ inheritance can be single multiple or hierarchical.
  • Polymorphism: Polymorphism means the ability of objects to take on different forms or behaviors. In C++ polymorphism is achieved through function overloading and virtual functions. Function overloading allows the same function name to have multiple implementations while virtual functions enable dynamic binding and late binding.
  • Abstraction: Abstraction refers to the process of simplifying complex systems by modeling them at a higher level of abstraction. In C++ classes can be used to create abstract data types (ADTs) which hide the implementation details and expose only the essential features.
  • Modularity: OOP promotes modular programming by dividing a complex problem into smaller more manageable modules. Each class represents a module that encapsulates related data and behavior making the code easier to understand maintain and reuse.
  • Polymorphism: Polymorphism is a fundamental concept in OOP allowing objects to be treated as instances of their own class or any of their ancestor classes. It enables code flexibility extensibility and enables the use of interfaces and abstract classes.
  • Dynamic Memory Management: C++ supports dynamic memory allocation using the new and delete operators. This feature allows objects to be created and destroyed dynamically during program execution giving greater control over memory usage.
  • Standard Template Library (STL): C++ provides the STL a powerful library that offers a set of generic classes and algorithms. It includes containers (e.g. vectors lists) iterators algorithms (e.g. sorting searching) and function objects. The STL facilitates efficient and reusable code development.
By utilizing these principles and features C++ enables programmers to design and implement complex systems in a modular maintainable and extensible manner. OOP in C++ promotes code reusability flexibility and scalability making it a popular choice for developing a wide range of applications.   

Unit- 2 Constructors and destructors

Declaration and Definition of Constructors: In object-oriented programming constructors play a vital role in creating and initializing objects within a class. A constructor is a special member function that is invoked automatically when an object of a class is created. It is responsible for allocating memory setting initial values and performing any necessary setup operations for the object.

The declaration of a constructor typically follows the same name as the class and has no return type not even void. It may take parameters allowing for different ways of initializing objects based on the provided arguments. If no constructor is explicitly declared the compiler generates a default constructor with no parameters.

The definition of a constructor provides the implementation of the constructor declared in the class. It consists of a block of code enclosed within curly braces. Here you can specify the operations to be performed during object creation such as assigning initial values to member variables calling other member functions or allocating resources.

Constructors can be overloaded meaning multiple constructors can exist within a class with different parameter lists. This allows objects to be created with varying initializations based on the arguments passed during object creation.

The role of constructors extends beyond just initialization. They also ensure the proper memory allocation and object setup enabling the object to be used effectively. Constructors are fundamental in object-oriented programming as they facilitate the creation and initialization of objects ensuring that they are in a valid and usable state from the moment of creation.    

Unit- 3 Inheritance   

Concept of Inheritance: In the context of computer programming and object-oriented programming (OOP) the concept of inheritance refers to the ability of a class to inherit properties and behaviors from another class. It is a fundamental principle that enables code reuse and promotes modular and efficient design.

Inheritance establishes an "is-a" relationship between classes where a derived class (also known as a subclass or child class) inherits characteristics from a base class (also known as a superclass or parent class). The derived class can access and use the attributes and methods defined in the base class while also having the flexibility to add its own unique features or override existing ones.

This mechanism allows for hierarchical organization and abstraction of code. The base class encapsulates common attributes and behaviors shared by multiple derived classes promoting code reuse and reducing redundancy. Inheritance promotes modularity and flexibility in code design as changes made to the base class automatically propagate to the derived classes.

Inheritance also facilitates polymorphism another key concept in OOP. Polymorphism allows objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common base class enabling generic programming and enhancing code flexibility.

Overall inheritance is a powerful tool in object-oriented programming providing a mechanism for code reuse modularity and polymorphism. It enhances software development by promoting efficient and maintainable code structures.    

Unit- 4 Pointers   

Concept of Pointer: In computer programming a pointer is a variable that stores the memory address of another variable or object. It essentially "points" to the location in memory where the data is stored. Pointers are commonly used in low-level programming languages like C and C++ to efficiently manipulate and access data.

Pointers provide a way to indirectly access and modify data allowing for more efficient memory management and complex data structures. They enable the passing of parameters by reference which avoids making unnecessary copies of data and allows for modifications to the original data.

When using pointers programmers must be careful to avoid common pitfalls such as null pointers (pointers that do not point to valid memory locations) dangling pointers (pointers that point to memory that has been deallocated) and memory leaks (failure to deallocate memory when it is no longer needed).

Pointers can be a powerful tool in programming but they also require careful handling to ensure the integrity and security of the program.    

Unit- 5 Data structures

One Dimensional Array: A one-dimensional array also known as a linear array is a data structure that stores elements of the same data type in a contiguous block of memory. It is called "one-dimensional" because it represents a single row or a single line of data. Each element in the array is accessed using an index which represents its position within the array.

The size of a one-dimensional array is determined during its declaration and cannot be changed dynamically during runtime. The elements in the array are typically of a homogeneous type meaning they have the same data type. This makes it convenient to perform operations on the array elements using loops or other iterative structures.

One-dimensional arrays are widely used in programming for various purposes such as storing a collection of values representing vectors or lists or implementing basic data structures like stacks or queues. They provide a simple and efficient way to organize and access data in a sequential manner.    

Unit- 6 Database and SQL

Database and its Advantages: A database is a structured collection of data that is organized and stored in a way that allows efficient retrieval management and manipulation of information. It offers several advantages:
  • Data organization and management: Databases provide a systematic way to organize and store large amounts of data. They ensure data integrity eliminate redundancy and facilitate efficient data management.
  • Data consistency: Databases enforce data consistency by allowing the use of constraints and rules. This ensures that data is accurate and reliable preventing inconsistencies or contradictions.
  • Data security: Databases offer robust security features to protect sensitive information. Access controls authentication mechanisms and encryption techniques help safeguard data from unauthorized access ensuring confidentiality and privacy.
  • Data sharing and accessibility: Databases enable multiple users to access and share data concurrently. This promotes collaboration and information sharing among different individuals or departments within an organization.
  • Data integrity and reliability: Databases provide mechanisms such as transactions and data validation rules to maintain data integrity and enforce data accuracy and reliability.
  • Scalability and performance: Databases are designed to handle large amounts of data and support high-performance operations. They can scale vertically or horizontally to accommodate growing data volumes and user demands.
  • Data analysis and decision-making: Databases support advanced querying and analysis capabilities allowing users to extract meaningful insights and make informed decisions based on data patterns and trends.
In summary databases offer numerous advantages including efficient data organization consistency security accessibility integrity scalability and analytical capabilities making them essential tools for managing and leveraging data effectively.   

Unit- 7 Boolean Logic 

Laws of Boolean Algebra: Boolean algebra is a mathematical system that deals with binary variables and logical operations. It was developed by mathematician George Boole in the mid-19th century and forms the foundation of digital logic and computer science. The laws of Boolean algebra are a set of fundamental rules that govern the manipulation and simplification of Boolean expressions.

Identity Laws: These laws state that the result is unchanged when a variable is combined with its complement or with the Boolean value "1" or "0". For example A + 0 = A or A • 1 = A.

Null Laws: These laws state that the result is always "0" when a variable is combined with its complement or with the Boolean value "0". For example A + A' = 1 or A • A' = 0.

Domination Laws: These laws state that the result is always equal to the variable itself or to "1" when a variable is combined with the Boolean value "1". For example A + 1 = 1 or A • 1 = A.

Idempotent Laws: These laws state that applying an operation twice to a variable does not change the result. For example A + A = A or A • A = A.

Commutative Laws: These laws state that the order of variables in an operation can be changed without affecting the result. For example A + B = B + A or A • B = B • A.

Associative Laws: These laws state that the grouping of variables in an operation can be changed without affecting the result. For example (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) or (A • B) • C = A • (B • C).

Distributive Laws: These laws state that a variable distributed over an operation can be split into two separate operations. For example A • (B + C) = (A • B) + (A • C) or A + (B • C) = (A + B) • (A + C).

These laws are essential for simplifying and manipulating Boolean expressions which are widely used in digital circuits logic gates and computer programming.

Unit- 8 Networking and Cyber security

Types of Networks: There are many types of networks which are as under:

PAN (Personal Area Network): A PAN is a network that covers a small area typically within a person's personal space such as a home or office. It enables communication between personal devices like smartphones laptops and tablets. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi are commonly used technologies for PANs.

LAN (Local Area Network): A LAN is a network that connects devices within a limited geographic area such as a home office building or school. LANs are typically used to share resources like files printers and internet access among connected devices. Ethernet cables or Wi-Fi are commonly used to establish LAN connections.

MAN (Metropolitan Area Network): A MAN is a network that covers a larger geographic area such as a city or a metropolitan region. It interconnects multiple LANs and facilitates data sharing and communication between different locations within the metropolitan area. Fiber-optic cables or wireless technologies like WiMAX are often used for MANs.

WAN (Wide Area Network): A WAN is a network that spans across large distances connecting multiple LANs or MANs over long distances often across different cities countries or continents. The internet is the most prominent example of a WAN. WANs use a variety of technologies including leased lines satellites and various routing protocols to establish connectivity over long distances.

JKBOSE Class 12th All Subject Notes

 Class 12th English Notes

 Class 12th History Notes

 Class 12th Economics Notes

 Class 12th Geography Notes

 Class 12th Poltical Science Notes

 Class 12th Education Notes

 Class 12th Education Notes

 Class 12th  Sociology  Notes

 Class 12th Mathamatics Notes

 Class 12th Statistics Notes

 Class 12th Islamic Stadies Notes

 Class 12th Computer Notes

 Class 12th Information Practice Notes

 Class 12th English Literature Notes

 Class 12th Environmental Science Notes

 Class 12th Physics Notes

 Class 12th Chemistry Notes

 Class 12th Biology Notes

 Class 12th Business Stadies Notes

 Class 12th   Accountancy Notes

 Class 12th  Entrepreneurship Notes

 Class 12th  Physical Education Notes

 Class 12th  Urdu Notes

JKBOSE Class 12th Computer Science Important Textual Questions

What is Object Oriented Programming (OOP) in C++?

Object Oriented Programming (OOP) in C++ is a programming paradigm that emphasizes the creation and manipulation of objects. It allows for modular and organized code by encapsulating data and behavior into a single entity.

What is the role of constructors in C++?

Constructors are special member functions in C++ that are invoked automatically when an object of a class is created. They allocate memory set initial values and perform necessary setup operations for the object.

What is inheritance in object-oriented programming?

Inheritance is the ability of a class to inherit properties and behaviors from another class. It establishes a hierarchical relationship between classes and promotes code reuse and modularity.

What is a pointer in computer programming?

A pointer is a variable that stores the memory address of another variable or object. It allows for efficient manipulation and access to data in low-level programming languages like C and C++.

What are the advantages of using databases?

Databases provide efficient data organization data consistency data security data sharing and accessibility data integrity and reliability scalability and performance and data analysis capabilities. They are essential for managing and leveraging data effectively.

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