JKBOSE Class 12th Environmental Science Notes
JKBOSE Class 12th Environmental Science Notes PDF Download. If you are the students of Jammu and Kashmir and are looking for important questions and Notes of Environmental Science Subject then you are at right place. Get JKBOSE important Study Materials Notes of all the subjects for Class 12th in this site but in this article we will provide you Environmental Science Notes for Class 12th. So keep visiting and get the free and best notes.
Download Unitwise Notes of JKBOSE Class 12th Environment Science
JKBOSE Class 12th Environmental Science Unitwise Notes
Unit 1: Air and Noise Pollution
Air and noise pollution refers to the contamination of the air and the excessive presence of noise that can have harmful effects on human health ecosystems as well as environment. Air pollution occurs when harmful substances such as gases particulate matter and chemicals which are released into the atmosphere often as a result of human activities like industrial emissions vehicle exhaust and burning of fossil fuels. Noise pollution is the excessive or disturbing noise that can disrupt human activities and cause stress and health issues. These units aim to study the causes effects and mitigation strategies for air and noise pollution.
Unit 2: Water Pollution
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as rivers lakes oceans and groundwater sources. It occurs when pollutants including chemicals pathogens and debris that are introduced into water sources and making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. Various factors contribute to water pollution including industrial discharge agricultural runoff improper waste disposal and sewage contamination. The study of water pollution involves understanding the sources impacts and management practices to protect and preserve water resources.
Unit 3: Soil Degradation
Soil degradation refers to the deterioration of soil quality and productivity often caused by human activities. It involves the loss of soil fertility Erosion Salinization contamination and desertification. Soil degradation can result from improper agricultural practices deforestation overgrazing industrial activities and urbanization. These units explore the causes consequences and techniques for soil conservation and sustainable land management.
Unit 4: Solid and Hazardous Waste Management
Solid and hazardous waste management focuses on the proper handling treatment and disposal of waste materials to minimize their adverse effects on the environment and public health. Solid waste includes non-liquid waste generated from households industries and commercial establishments while hazardous waste refers to materials that pose a threat to human health or the environment due to their toxic flammable corrosive or reactive nature. The units on waste management cover waste reduction recycling landfill management and safe disposal methods for hazardous materials.
Unit 5: Biodiversity Management
Biodiversity management involves the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity including plants animals and ecosystems. It encompasses efforts to protect and restore habitats preserve endangered species promote sustainable practices in agriculture and forestry and raise awareness about the importance of biodiversity. These units explore the value of biodiversity the threats it faces and the strategies for its conservation and sustainable management.
Unit 6: Global Environmental Issues
Global environmental issues refer to challenges that transcend national boundaries and have far-reaching impacts on the planet. These include climate change ozone depletion deforestation loss of biodiversity ocean acidification and pollution. The units on global environmental issues provide an understanding of the causes consequences and potential solutions to these problems emphasizing the need for international cooperation and collective action to address them effectively.
Unit 7: Environmental Management and Legislation
Environmental management and legislation encompass the development and implementation of policies laws and regulations to protect and manage the environment. These units explore the role of governments organizations and individuals in environmental governance the legal frameworks for environmental protection and the principles of sustainable development. They also cover environmental impact assessments environmental auditing and the integration of environmental considerations into various sectors such as energy transportation and urban planning. The aim is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the tools and approaches used to manage and regulate human activities for environmental sustainability.