JKBOSE Class 12th Environmental Science Notes | Study Materials

JKBOSE Class 12th Environmental Science Notes

JKBOSE Class 12th Environmental Science Notes PDF Download. If you are the students of Jammu and Kashmir and are looking for important questions and Notes of Environmental Science Subject then you are at right place. Get JKBOSE important Study Materials Notes of all the subjects for Class 12th in this site but in this article we will provide you  Environmental Science Notes for Class 12th. So keep visiting and get the free and best notes.

JKBOSE Class 12th Environmental Science Study Material Notes

JKBOSE Class 12th Environmental Science Notes

JKBOSE Class 12th Environmental Science Unitwise Notes

Unit 1: Air and Noise Pollution 
Air and noise pollution refers to the contamination of the air and the excessive presence of noise that can have harmful effects on human health, ecosystems as well as environment. Air pollution occurs when harmful substances such as gases, particulate matter and chemicals which are released into the atmosphere often as a result of human activities like industrial emissions, vehicle exhaust and burning of fossil fuels. Noise pollution is the excessive or disturbing noise that can disrupt human activities and cause stress and health issues. These units aim to study the causes, effects and mitigation strategies for air and noise pollution.

Points to Learn from this Unit
  • Introduction to air pollution: sources, types and effects
  • Air quality monitoring and assessment
  • Major air pollutants and their impacts
  • Regulatory measures and control strategies for air pollution
  • Noise pollution: sources, effects and control measures
  • Case studies and real-world examples

Unit 2: Water Pollution 
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as rivers, lakes, oceans and groundwater sources. It occurs when pollutants including chemicals, pathogens and debris that are introduced into water sources and making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. Various factors contribute to water pollution including industrial discharge, agricultural runoff, improper waste disposal and sewage contamination. The study of water pollution involves understanding the sources, impacts and management practices to protect and preserve water resources.

Points to Learn from this Unit
  • Introduction to water pollution: sources, types and impacts
  • Water quality monitoring and assessment
  • Major water pollutants and their effects on ecosystems and human health
  • Wastewater treatment methods and technologies
  • Water pollution control and management approaches
  • Case studies and real-world examples

Unit 3: Soil Degradation 
Soil degradation refers to the deterioration of soil quality and productivity often caused by human activities. It involves the loss of soil fertility, Erosion, Salinization, contamination and desertification. Soil degradation can result from improper agricultural practices, deforestation, overgrazing, industrial activities and urbanization. These units explore the causes, consequences and techniques for soil conservation and sustainable land management.

Points to Learn from this Unit
  • Causes and consequences of soil degradation
  • Soil erosion and its impact on agriculture and ecosystems
  • Soil pollution: sources, contaminants and effects
  • Soil conservation techniques and sustainable land management practices
  • Soil remediation and restoration methods
  • Case studies and real-world examples

Unit 4: Solid and Hazardous Waste Management 
Solid and hazardous waste management focuses on the proper handling, treatment and disposal of waste materials to minimize their adverse effects on the environment and public health. Solid waste includes non-liquid waste generated from households, industries and commercial establishments while hazardous waste refers to materials that pose a threat to human health or the environment due to their toxic, flammable, corrosive or reactive nature. The units on waste management cover waste reduction, recycling, landfill management and safe disposal methods for hazardous materials.

Points to Learn from this Unit
  • Introduction to solid waste management: types, composition and generation rates
  • Waste collection, transportation and disposal methods
  • Recycling and waste reduction strategies
  • Hazardous waste identification and classification
  • Treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous waste
  • Case studies and real-world examples

Unit 5: Biodiversity Management 
Biodiversity management involves the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity including plants, animals and ecosystems. It encompasses efforts to protect and restore habitats, preserve endangered species, promote sustainable practices in agriculture and forestry and raise awareness about the importance of biodiversity. These units explore the value of biodiversity, the threats it faces and the strategies for its conservation and sustainable management.

Points to Learn from this Unit
  • Importance of biodiversity and its role in ecosystem functioning
  • Threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, invasive species, pollution, climate change etc.
  • Conservation strategies: protected areas, biodiversity hotspots and wildlife management
  • Sustainable use of biodiversity resources
  • Ecosystem restoration and conservation planning
  • Case studies and real-world examples

Unit 6: Global Environmental Issues
Global environmental issues refer to challenges that transcend national boundaries and have far-reaching impacts on the planet. These include climate change, ozone depletion, deforestation, loss of biodiversity, ocean acidification and pollution. The units on global environmental issues provide an understanding of the causes, consequences and potential solutions to these problems, emphasizing the need for international cooperation and collective action to address them effectively.

Points to Learn from this Unit
  • Climate change: causes, impacts and mitigation strategies
  • Ozone depletion and the Montreal Protocol
  • Deforestation and its consequences
  • Loss of biodiversity and its implications
  • Sustainable development and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
  • International agreements and protocols on environmental issues
  • Case studies and real-world examples

Unit 7: Environmental Management and Legislation 
Environmental management and legislation encompass the development and implementation of policies, laws and regulations to protect and manage the environment. These units explore the role of governments, organizations and individuals in environmental governance, the legal frameworks for environmental protection and the principles of sustainable development. They also cover environmental impact assessments, environmental auditing and the integration of environmental considerations into various sectors such as energy, transportation and urban planning. The aim is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the tools and approaches used to manage and regulate human activities for environmental sustainability.

Points to Learn from this Unit
  • Environmental management systems and frameworks
  • Environmental impact assessment and environmental auditing
  • Corporate social responsibility and sustainability reporting
  • Environmental legislation and regulations at local, national and international levels
  • Role of government agencies and non-governmental organizations in environmental management
  • Case studies and real-world examples

JKBOSE Class 12th All Subject Notes

 Class 12th English Notes

 Class 12th History Notes

 Class 12th Economics Notes

 Class 12th Geography Notes

 Class 12th Poltical Science Notes

 Class 12th Education Notes

 Class 12th Education Notes

 Class 12th  Sociology  Notes

 Class 12th Mathamatics Notes

 Class 12th Statistics Notes

 Class 12th Islamic Stadies Notes

 Class 12th Computer Notes

 Class 12th Information Practice Notes

 Class 12th English Literature Notes

 Class 12th Environmental Science Notes

 Class 12th Physics Notes

 Class 12th Chemistry Notes

 Class 12th Biology Notes

 Class 12th Business Stadies Notes

 Class 12th   Accountancy Notes

 Class 12th  Entrepreneurship Notes

 Class 12th  Physical Education Notes

 Class 12th  Urdu Notes

JKBOSE Class 12th Environmental Science Important Textual Questions

What are the main sources of air pollution?

Answer: The main sources of air pollution include industrial emissions, vehicle exhaust, burning of fossil fuels, agricultural activities and aerosol sprays.

How does air pollution impact human health?

Answer: Air pollution can cause respiratory problems, cardiovascular diseases, allergies and other health issues. It can also lead to reduced lung function, premature deaths and increased risk of lung cancer.

How does water pollution affect aquatic ecosystems?

Answer: Water pollution can harm aquatic ecosystems by depleting oxygen levels, causing habitat destruction, killing aquatic organisms, disrupting food chains and promoting the growth of harmful algal blooms.

How can solid waste be managed effectively?

Solid waste can be managed effectively through waste reduction, recycling, composting, waste-to-energy conversion and proper landfill management.

What are the main causes of climate change?

Answer: The main causes of climate change are the excessive greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and industrial processes.

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