JKBOSE Class 12th History Notes PDF Download | Study Materials

JKBOSE Class 12th History Notes

JKBOSE Class 12th History Notes

JKBOSE Class 12th History Notes PDF Download. If you are the students of Jammu and Kashmir and are looking for important questions and Notes of History Subject then you are at right place. Get JKBOSE important Study Materials Notes of all the subjects for Class 12th in this site but in this article we will provide you History Notes for Class 12th. So keep visiting and get the free and best notes.

JKBOSE Class 12th History Chapterwise Notes 

Themes In Indian History (Part – I )

Unit- 1 The Story of the First Cities: Harappan Archaeology

Harappan Archaeology refers to the archaeological study of the Harappan civilization also known as the Indus Valley Civilization. The Harappan civilization was one of the earliest and most advanced civilizations of the ancient world which flourished in the Indus River Valley from around 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE covering parts of modern-day India Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Harappan Archaeology involves the excavation analysis and interpretation of the artifacts structures and other remains left behind by the Harappan people. Archaeologists have uncovered the remains of several major Harappan cities including Harappa Mohenjo-daro and Dholavira which provide valuable insights into the urban planning architecture economy and social organization of the Harappan civilization.

Some of the significant findings of Harappan Archaeology include the well-planned and structured cities with an advanced drainage system evidence of trade and commerce with other civilizations a writing system that has yet to be fully deciphered and evidence of an advanced agricultural system.

Harappan Archaeology is a crucial field of study that helps us to understand the development and decline of one of the earliest and most advanced civilizations of the ancient world. It also provides insights into the cultural social economic and technological advancements of the Harappan people which continue to influence modern-day India and Pakistan.

  • Broad overview: Early urban centers
  • Story of discovery: Harappan Civilization
  • Excerpt: Archaeological report on a major site 
  • Discussion: How it has been utilized by Archaeologist / Historians.

Unit- 2 Political and Economic History: How inscriptions tell a story

Political and economic history is the study of past events and developments related to the governance and management of societies nations and economies. One of the most valuable sources for understanding this history is inscriptions which are texts or markings carved or engraved on hard surfaces like stone metal or wood.

Inscriptions tell a story of the political and economic history of a society by providing information about its rulers their policies their achievements and their aspirations. For example inscriptions found on ancient monuments or public buildings often give details about the construction of those structures the names of the individuals who commissioned them and their motivations for doing so.

Inscriptions can also reveal information about the economy of a society such as trade routes taxes and prices. For example inscriptions found on coins can reveal the economic policies of a ruler the types of goods that were traded and the exchange rates between different currencies.

Inscriptions can provide a unique insight into the political and economic history of a society that may not be available through other sources. By studying inscriptions historians can reconstruct the events and developments that shaped a society and gain a better understanding of its political and economic systems as well as the values and beliefs of the people who lived in it.
  • Political and economic history from the Mauryan to the Gupta period.
  • Story of discovery: Inscriptions and the decipherment of the script. Shifts in the understanding of political and economic history.
  • Excerpt: Asokan inscription and Gupta period land grant.
  • Discussion: Interpretation of inscription by Historians.

Unit- 3 Social Histories: Using the Mahabharata

Social Histories refers to the study of historical events and trends from a social perspective. This involves examining how social economic cultural and political factors have influenced the course of history and how different groups of people have been affected by these factors.
The Mahabharata is an ancient Indian epic poem that tells the story of a great war between two rival branches of a royal family the Pandavas and the Kauravas. It is one of the most important and influential texts in Indian culture and it offers a wealth of information about the social and cultural practices of ancient India.
By studying the Mahabharata scholars can gain insights into a wide range of topics related to social history such as:

The role of women in ancient Indian society: The Mahabharata contains numerous stories about women and their roles in society including the stories of Draupadi Kunti and Gandhari. These stories provide valuable information about the ways in which women were perceived and treated in ancient India.

Caste and social hierarchy: The Mahabharata also provides insights into the caste system and the social hierarchy that existed in ancient India. The characters in the epic are often divided along caste lines and their interactions provide clues about the ways in which caste and social status were perceived and enforced.

Religion and spirituality: The Mahabharata is a deeply spiritual text and it offers insights into the religious beliefs and practices of ancient India. It includes stories about the gods and goddesses worshipped in ancient India as well as philosophical and ethical teachings.

Overall the Mahabharata is a rich source of information about the social and cultural practices of ancient India and it offers valuable insights into the ways in which these practices have shaped the course of history. By studying the epic from a social historical perspective scholars can gain a deeper understanding of the complexities and nuances of ancient Indian society.
  • Issues in social history including caste class kinship and gender.
  • Story of discovery: Transmission and publications of the Mahabharata.
  • Excerpt: From the Mahabharata illustrating how it has been used by historians.
  • Discussion: Other sources for reconstructing social history.

Unit- 4  A History of Buddhism: Sanchi Stupa

Buddhism is one of the major religions in the world originating in ancient India in the 6th century BCE. Over the centuries Buddhism has spread to various parts of the world and has undergone significant transformations in its beliefs practices and rituals.

One of the most important symbols of Buddhism is the stupa which is a dome-shaped structure that houses sacred relics or represents important events or figures in the Buddhist tradition. The Sanchi Stupa is one of the most famous stupas in India and is an important site for Buddhist pilgrimage and study.

The Sanchi Stupa is located in the town of Sanchi in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It was built in the 3rd century BCE during the Mauryan Empire by Emperor Ashoka who was a prominent patron of Buddhism. The stupa was originally a simple brick structure but it was later expanded and embellished by later rulers and donors.

The Sanchi Stupa is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is renowned for its exquisite carvings and sculptures which depict various scenes from the life of the Buddha and his teachings. The stupa is also adorned with intricate decorative motifs which showcase the artistic and aesthetic sensibilities of the ancient Indian civilization.

Today the Sanchi Stupa is a symbol of the rich cultural and spiritual heritage of India and is an important site for Buddhist practitioners and scholars from all over the world. Its historical and artistic significance makes it a must-visit destination for anyone interested in the history of Buddhism and the ancient Indian civilization.
  • A brief review of religious histories of Vedic religion Jainism Vaisnavism Saivism.
  • Focus on Buddhism
  • Story of discovery: Sanchi Stupa
  • Excerpt: Reproduction of sculptures from Sanchi
  • Discussion: Ways in which sculpture has been interpreted by historians other sources for 
  • reconstructing the history of Buddhism.

Themes In Indian History (Part II ) 

Unit- 5  Agrarian Relations: The Ain – I – Akbari

Agrarian relations refer to the social economic and political relationships between those who own or control land and those who work on it. In India one of the most comprehensive sources of information on agrarian relations during the Mughal period is the Ain-i-Akbari.

The Ain-i-Akbari is a detailed document compiled in the 16th century by Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak a courtier and historian in the court of Emperor Akbar. It is part of the Akbarnama which is a three-volume history of Akbar's reign.

The Ain-i-Akbari contains information on a wide range of topics including agrarian relations. It describes the various categories of land such as khalisa (land directly controlled by the state) jagir (land given as a grant to a noble or officer) and muafi (land exempt from taxation). It also provides information on the rights and duties of different groups involved in agriculture such as landlords tenants and cultivators.

The Ain-i-Akbari also provides information on the revenue system and how it was collected. It describes the various taxes and levies imposed on different categories of land and how the revenue was shared between the state and the landlords.

Overall the Ain-i-Akbari is a valuable source of information on agrarian relations during the Mughal period in India and provides insight into the complex social economic and political relationships between those who owned or controlled land and those who worked on it.
  • Structure of agrarian in the 16th and 17th centuries
  • Patterns of change over the period.
  • Story of Discovery: Account of the compilation and translation of Ain–i–Akbari
  • Excerpt: From the Ain–i–Akbari
  • Discussion: Ways in which historians have used the text to reconstruct history.

Unit- 6 The Mughal Court: Reconstructing Histories through Chronicles

The Mughal Court refers to the court of the Mughal emperors who ruled over the Indian subcontinent from the early 16th to the mid-19th century. The Mughal court was a center of political power cultural patronage and artistic production. The emperors and their courtiers commissioned and patronized a wide range of art forms including painting architecture literature and music.
The chronicles of the Mughal court are historical records that provide insight into the political social and cultural developments of the time. They were written by court historians poets and chroniclers who recorded the events of the court and the activities of the emperor and his courtiers. These chronicles include descriptions of court rituals ceremonies and festivities as well as the daily life of the emperor and his subjects.

Reconstructing histories through these chronicles involves analyzing and interpreting these historical records to better understand the Mughal court and its impact on Indian history and culture. Scholars use these chronicles to study the political and social dynamics of the Mughal court the cultural and artistic achievements of the period and the interactions between different religious and ethnic communities.

Overall the study of the Mughal court and its chronicles provides a fascinating insight into a pivotal period in Indian history and helps us to better understand the rich and diverse cultural heritage of the Indian subcontinent.
  • Outline of political history i.e 15th – 17th centuries.
  • Discussion of the Mughal Court and politics.
  • Story of Discovery: Account of the production of court chronicles and their subsequent 
  • translation and transmission.
  • Excerpts: From the Akbarnama and Padshahnama.
  • Discussion: Ways in which historians have used the texts to reconstruct political histories.

Unit- 7 New Architecture: Hampi

Hampi is a new architecture for designing computer processors developed by researchers at the University of California San Diego. The name "Hampi" comes from the ancient city of Hampi in India which was known for its architecture and engineering.

The Hampi architecture is designed to be more efficient and flexible than traditional processor architectures such as the x86 architecture used in most personal computers. One of the key features of Hampi is its ability to dynamically reconfigure its processing units to optimize performance for different types of applications.

In traditional processor architectures the processing units are fixed and specialized for specific tasks such as arithmetic operations or memory access. This means that the processor can be inefficient for tasks that require a different set of processing units. Hampi on the other hand uses a "fine-grained reconfigurable array" of processing units that can be dynamically reconfigured to suit the needs of different applications.

Another important feature of Hampi is its support for "speculative execution " which allows the processor to start executing instructions before it has all the necessary data. This can help improve performance by reducing the amount of time the processor spends waiting for data to become available.
Overall the Hampi architecture represents a promising new direction for processor design with the potential to deliver significant improvements in performance and efficiency over traditional architectures. However it is still in the early stages of development and it remains to be seen how well it will perform in real-world applications.
  • Outline of new buildings during Vijaynagar period - temples forts irrigation facilities.
  • Relationship between architecture and the political system.
  • Story of Discovery: Account of how Hampi was found.
  • Excerpts: Visuals of buildings at Hampi.
  • Discussion: Ways in which historians have analyzed and interpreted these structures.

Unit- 8 Religious Histories: The Bhakti – Sufi Tradition

The Bhakti-Sufi tradition is a religious movement that emerged in India during the medieval period. It was a unique fusion of two distinct religious traditions: Bhakti which refers to the devotional practices of Hinduism and Sufism which is the mystical and spiritual dimension of Islam.

The Bhakti movement originated in South India around the 7th century AD and spread to North India by the 12th century. It emphasized the devotion and love of an individual towards a personal God or goddess and rejected the idea of caste distinctions and ritualistic practices. The Bhakti movement gave rise to a number of saints and poets who wrote devotional hymns in local languages such as Tamil Telugu Kannada and Hindi. Some of the notable Bhakti saints are Mirabai Tulsidas Surdas and Kabir.

On the other hand Sufism originated in the Arab world in the 8th century AD and spread to India during the 10th century. Sufism emphasizes the inner spiritual dimension of Islam and seeks to attain a direct personal experience of the divine. Sufi saints are known for their ascetic practices such as fasting meditation and chanting of the name of God. They also believed in the principle of universal love and rejected religious and sectarian differences.

The Bhakti-Sufi tradition emerged when these two religious movements came into contact with each other in India. This interaction led to a fusion of ideas and practices resulting in the creation of a new syncretic tradition. The Bhakti-Sufi saints composed devotional poetry that reflected the ideas of both traditions and their message of love and devotion to God appealed to people from all backgrounds.

Some notable Bhakti-Sufi saints include Kabir Guru Nanak and Baba Farid. Their teachings and writings continue to influence the religious and cultural landscape of India to this day and the Bhakti-Sufi tradition is seen as an important example of how different religious traditions can come together to create something new and meaningful.
  • Outline of religious developments during this period.
  • Ideas and practices of the Bhakti – Sufi saints.
  • Story of Transmission: How Bhakti – Sufi compositions have been preserved.
  • Excerpts: Extracts from selected Bhakti – Sufi works.
  • Discussion: Ways in which these have been interpreted by historians.

Unit- 9 Medieval Society through Travellers Account

Medieval society can be understood through the accounts of travelers who journeyed through the period from the 5th to the 15th century. These travelers included merchants pilgrims diplomats and adventurers who traveled across Europe Asia and Africa leaving behind valuable descriptions of the societies they encountered.

One of the key features of medieval society was its hierarchical structure. At the top of the social pyramid were the ruling classes including kings nobles and bishops who wielded political and economic power. The middle class was composed of merchants and tradespeople while the lower class consisted of peasants who worked the land.

Travelers' accounts often provide detailed descriptions of the everyday lives of these social classes. For example they describe the luxurious lifestyles of the nobility the bustling markets of medieval towns and the hard work of peasants in the fields. They also offer insights into the role of religion in medieval society with many travelers remarking on the importance of the Catholic Church in everyday life.

Travelers' accounts can also shed light on the political and economic systems of medieval society. For example they may describe the power struggles between rival kingdoms the intricacies of medieval trade routes or the development of medieval law.

Furthermore travelers' accounts often reveal the cultural and intellectual trends of medieval society. They may describe the architecture of medieval cathedrals the development of new technologies or the emergence of new artistic movements.
Overall travelers' accounts offer valuable insights into the diverse and complex societies that existed in the medieval period. By reading these accounts we can gain a deeper understanding of the social political economic and cultural forces that shaped the world during this time.
  • Outline of social and cultural life as they appear in travellers accounts.
  • Story of their writings: A discussion of where they travelled why they travelled what they 
  • wrote and for whom they wrote.
  • Excerpts: From Alberuni Ibn Batuta Bernie.
  • Discussion: What these travel accounts can tell us and how they have been interpreted by 
  • historians.
Themes in Indian History ( Part – III )

Unit- 10 Colonialism and Rural Society: Evidence from Official Reports

Colonialism refers to the practice of a more powerful country taking control of a less powerful one. This often involved establishing settlements and exploiting resources in the colony for the benefit of the colonizing country.
Rural society refers to the social and economic organization of people living in rural areas such as villages or small towns. These communities often have a strong connection to the land and may rely on agriculture or other natural resources for their livelihoods.

Official reports are documents produced by government agencies or other organizations that provide information on various topics. They often contain data and analysis that can be used to understand different aspects of society.
When we consider the intersection of colonialism and rural society we are interested in how colonial policies and practices impacted the lives and livelihoods of rural communities in the colonies. Official reports can provide valuable insights into this relationship by documenting the ways in which colonial governments sought to control and exploit rural areas.

For example official reports might describe how colonial officials used laws and regulations to force rural communities to produce cash crops for export rather than growing food for their own consumption. Reports might also describe the ways in which colonial governments used violence and coercion to extract resources from rural areas or the impact of colonial policies on land ownership and access.
By analyzing these official reports we can gain a better understanding of the ways in which colonialism shaped rural society in the colonies and how rural communities responded to these pressures.
  • Life of zamindars peasants and artisans in the late 18th century.
  • East India Company revenue settlements and surveys.
  • Change over the nineteenth century.
  • Story of official records: An account of why official investigations into rural societies were 
  • undertaken and the types of records and reports produced.
  • Excerpts: From Firminger’s Fifth Report. Accounts of Francis Buchanan-Hamilton and Deccan 
  • Riots Report.
  • Discussion: What the official records tell and do not tell and how they have been used by historians.

Unit- 11 Representations of 1857

The phrase "Representations of 1857" is not clear enough to determine its specific meaning without more context. It is possible that it refers to different types of historical or cultural representations related to the year 1857. Here are a few possibilities:

Indian Rebellion of 1857: The Indian Rebellion of 1857 also known as the Indian Mutiny or the First War of Indian Independence was a major uprising against British rule in India that began in May 1857. The event has been represented in various forms of media including literature art and film. These representations often reflect different perspectives and interpretations of the rebellion depending on the cultural and political context of the artist or writer.

Political Representations of 1857: Depending on the country or region in question the year 1857 may have been a significant year in terms of political changes or upheavals. For example in the United States 1857 was the year of the Dred Scott decision a landmark Supreme Court case that held that African Americans could not be considered citizens of the United States. In other countries there may have been significant political events or movements that took place in 1857 that have been represented in various ways over time.

Cultural Representations of 1857: The year 1857 may have also been significant in terms of cultural developments or trends in certain regions or countries. For example in France 1857 was the year that Charles Baudelaire published his landmark collection of poems "Les Fleurs du Mal " which is considered a seminal work of modernist poetry. In other countries there may have been important artistic literary or musical works that were produced in 1857 that have been represented or interpreted in different ways over time. 
  • The events of 1857– 58
  • How these events were recorded and narrated.
  • Focus: Lucknow
  • Excerpts: Pictures of 1857. Extracts from contemporary accounts.
  • Discussion: How the pictures of 1857 shaped British opinion of what had happened.

Unit- 12 Colonialism and Indian Towns: Towns plans and Municipal Reports

Colonialism refers to the practice of establishing and maintaining colonies in one territory by people from another territory. This often involved the exploitation of resources and labor in the colonized territory as well as the imposition of cultural and political systems from the colonizing territory.

In the context of India colonialism refers specifically to the period of British rule in India which lasted from the mid-18th century to the mid-20th century. During this time the British established a system of governance in India that included the creation of administrative structures the imposition of British law and the development of infrastructure such as railways roads and telegraph lines.

Indian towns during the colonial period were often planned and designed by the British colonial government. These town plans were often based on European models with straight grid-like streets and public spaces designed for social control and efficient administration. The British also imposed a system of municipal governance in many Indian towns which included the establishment of elected municipal bodies responsible for managing local infrastructure and services such as water supply sanitation and street lighting.

Municipal reports were annual reports produced by these municipal bodies that provided information on the state of local infrastructure and services as well as the financial status of the municipality. These reports were used by the colonial government to monitor the functioning of the municipal bodies and to assess the needs of the local population.

Overall the planning of Indian towns and the development of municipal governance during the colonial period were part of the broader project of British colonialism in India. While these developments brought certain benefits such as improved infrastructure and services they also involved the imposition of foreign systems and values on Indian society and the exploitation of Indian resources and labor for the benefit of the British colonial state.
  • The growth of Mumbai Chennai hill stations and cantonments in the 18th and 19th century.
  • Excerpts: Photographs and paintings. Plans of cities.
  • Extract form town plan reports. Focus on Kolkata town planning.
  • Discussion: How the above sources can be used to reconstruct the history of towns. What these sources do not reveal.

Unit- 13  Mahatma Gandhi through Contemporary Eyes

Broad overview: 
  • The Nationalist Movement 1918 – 48
  • The nature of Gandhian politics and leadership.
  • Focus: Mahatma Gandhi in 1931
  • Excerpts: Report from English and Indian language newspapers and other contemporary 
  • writings.
  • Discussion: How newspapers can be source of history.

Unit- 14 Understanding the Partition

  • Resolution of Pakistan
  • Cabinet Mission Plan
  • Mountbatten Plan
  • Act of Indian Independence 1947

Unit- 15 The Making of the Constitution

Broad overview: 
  • Independence and the new nation state.
  • The making of the Constitution.
  • Focus: The Constitutional Assembly Debates
  • Excerpts: From the debates
  • Discussion: What such debates reveal and how they can be analyzed.

JKBOSE Class 12th All Subject Notes

 Class 12th English Notes

 Class 12th History Notes

 Class 12th Economics Notes

 Class 12th Geography Notes

 Class 12th Poltical Science Notes

 Class 12th Education Notes

 Class 12th Education Notes

 Class 12th  Sociology  Notes

 Class 12th Mathamatics Notes

 Class 12th Statistics Notes

 Class 12th Islamic Stadies Notes

 Class 12th Computer Notes

 Class 12th Information Practice Notes

 Class 12th English Literature Notes

 Class 12th Environmental Science Notes

 Class 12th Physics Notes

 Class 12th Chemistry Notes

 Class 12th Biology Notes

 Class 12th Business Stadies Notes

 Class 12th   Accountancy Notes

 Class 12th  Entrepreneurship Notes

 Class 12th  Physical Education Notes

 Class 12th  Urdu Notes

Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post

Contact Form