JKBOSE Class 12th History Notes PDF Download
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Download Unitwise Notes of JKBOSE Class 12th History
Introduction about the Units of JKBOSE Class 10 History
The Story of the First Cities: Harappan Archaeology
One of the earliest urban civilizations in the world is the Harappan culture, sometimes referred to as the Indus Valley civilization. It was in full bloom in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent between 2600 and 1900 BCE. The two biggest and most important cities in this civilization were Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.
The Harappan cities featured sophisticated urban infrastructure systems and were well-planned. They also had granaries, public baths, and complex drainage systems. These cities' architectural designs display an impressive degree of organisation and forethought.
Political and Economic History: How inscriptions tell a story
The political and economic history of the civilization can be greatly understood from the inscriptions that have been discovered in Harappan sites. These Indus script inscriptions exhibit a variety of symbols and signs but have not yet been fully interpreted. These symbols are thought to stand for things like products, goods names, or even religious and ritual practises.
Social Histories: Using the Mahabharata
One of the world's longest epic poems, the Mahabharata, provides insights into the social histories of ancient India. It offers details about the societal organisation, practises, and traditions of that period. The Kuru dynasty and the famous Kurukshetra conflict are both told in the Mahabharata. The social dynamics and complexity of ancient Indian society are depicted in a fascinating manner.
A History of Buddhism: Sanchi Stupa
One of the most significant Buddhist structures in India is the Sanchi Stupa, which is located in modern-day Madhya Pradesh. It was built by Emperor Ashoka in the third century BCE and functioned as a significant place of devotion for Buddhists. The Stupa offers insights into the development of Buddhism in India and is a prime example of Mauryan-era architecture and art.
Agrarian Relations: The Ain-i-Akbari
An administrative and statistical account of Emperor Akbar's reign may be found in the Ain-I-Akbari, a section of the Akbarnama. It provides an in-depth analysis of the agrarian relations throughout the Mughal era. The Ain-I-Akbari contains information on land revenue, agricultural methods, and peasant rights and privileges. It provides us with a window into the era's socioeconomic system and agrarian economy.
The Mughal Court: Reconstructing Histories through Chronicles
During the Mughal Empire, the Mughal court served as a hub of authority, culture, and patronage. The emperors' lives, the political machinations, and the cultural advancements of the period are all well-explained in court historians' chronicles. These chronicles aid in the reconstruction of the Mughal court's histories and the comprehension of the dynamics of the empire.
New Architecture: Hampi
The Vijayanagara Empire's former capital was Hampi, which is now in the state of Karnataka. The architectural prowess of the empire is on display in the Hampi Ruins, which are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The temples, palaces, and other buildings of Hampi showcase the Vijayanagara architectural style and offer a window into the opulence of the past.
Religious Histories: The Bhakti-Sufi Tradition
Medival Indian religious and cultural practises were greatly influenced by the Bhakti and Sufi traditions. The Sufi tradition placed emphasis on mysticism and the search of spiritual experiences, whereas the Bhakti movement placed emphasis on devotion and adoration for a personal god. These two traditions' relationships inspired religious syncretism and promoted peace among the community.
Medieval Society through Travelers Account
Mediaeval traveller accounts offer important insights into the social structure of Indian society. The habits, traditions, and sociocultural features of mediaeval India are vividly described in the works of foreign travellers like Ibn Battuta and Marco Polo. These reports aid in our comprehension of the complexity and wealth of mediaeval Indian civilization.
Colonialism and Rural Society: Evidence from Official Reports
The effects of British colonialism on India's rural society are discussed in official reports from the time. These papers offer information on social structures, agricultural methods, and property ownership during the time. They provide proof of the social upheavals and economic exploitation brought on by colonial control.
Representations of 1857
The Indian Rebellion or First War of freedom, which took place in 1857, is seen as a turning point in India's quest for freedom from British domination. Different viewpoints on the reasons for, effects of, and significance of the historic event of 1857 are offered by how it is portrayed in literature, art, and historical sources. These depictions aid in our comprehension of the complexity of the uprising and its effects on Indian society.
Colonialism and Indian Towns: Towns plans and Municipal Reports
The urban evolution of Indian towns during the colonial era can be better understood through colonial town planning and municipal records. These studies offer details on town plans, infrastructure, government operations, and organisational structures. They demonstrate how colonial beliefs and practises impacted urban areas and changed Indian towns during British control.
Mahatma Gandhi through Contemporary Eyes
The father of the Indian freedom struggle, Mahatma Gandhi, made an enduring impression on Indian history. Numerous viewpoints on Gandhi's life and his nonviolent philosophy can be found in contemporary reports, such as writings, speeches, and interviews. These stories enable us to comprehend Gandhi's contribution to the Indian independence movement and his ongoing legacy.
Understanding the Partition
The 1947 partition of India, which led to the establishment of India and Pakistan, was a historic event that influenced the futures of both countries. Examining the political, social, and religious causes of the separation is necessary to comprehend it. It also entails analysing the perspectives of those who experienced the divide and its lingering effects.
The Making of the Constitution
The supreme law of India is the Constitution, which was adopted in 1950. It establishes the rules for governance, fundamental rights, and citizen responsibilities. The members of the Constituent Assembly engaged in lengthy discussions, debates, and consultations while crafting the constitution. To appreciate the tenets of India's democratic system, it is essential to comprehend the historical setting and guiding principles of the constitution.
The history of India is knitted together from many different strands, including the rise and collapse of ancient civilizations, the complexity of mediaeval culture, and the difficulties of colonial rule.
rule, as well as the process of achieving independence and constructing a country. Each chapter gives distinctive insights on the political, economic, social, and religious facets of India's past, from the Harappan towns through the creation of the constitution.
We can put the pieces of history together and learn more about the factors that have influenced the Indian subcontinent by looking into the fields of archaeology, inscriptions, literature, and official documents. While the Mahabharata provides a look into the social structure of ancient India, the Harappan civilization demonstrates the intricacy of early urban design.
The Hampi's and Sanchi Stupa's. The magnificent architectural achievements of Hampi and the Sanchi Stupa are evidence of the rich cultural heritage of Buddhism and the Vijayanagara Empire. Important insights into the socio-economic forces that have produced India's present can be gained by examining agrarian connections, the Mughal court, and colonialism's effects on rural society.
We can better understand the complexity of the struggle for independence and the effectiveness of nonviolence as a force for change by studying portrayals of 1857 and Mahatma Gandhi's testimonies. Finally, through comprehending the split and the constitution-making process, we are able to consider the difficulties and goals that have shaped the nation's development.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
Q 1. Were the Harappan cities the first urban settlements in ancient India?
The Harappan civilization was one of the most advanced and well-known urban civilizations of its time, while there were older urban settlements like Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.
Q 2. How do inscriptions contribute to our understanding of the political and economic history of ancient India?
A lot may be learned about historical rulers, objects, and religious beliefs from inscriptions. The symbols and marks in the Indus script enable scholars piece together elements of political and economic life even if it has not yet been fully deciphered.
Q 3. What role did Buddhism play in shaping Indian history?
As Buddhism extended throughout Asia, even outside of India, it had a tremendous impact on Indian society. It had a long-lasting impact on the area's social ideals, architecture, and art.
Q 4. What can we learn from travelers' accounts about medieval Indian society?
Traveler's narratives provide a distinctive viewpoint on the traditions, customs, and social structure of mediaeval India. The Indian subcontinent's diversity as well as daily life, cultural customs, and practises are all vividly described by them.
Q 5. How did the partition of India in 1947 impact the subcontinent?
The partition resulted in extensive bloodshed, evictions, and fatalities. It led to the separation of India and Pakistan into two independent countries and had long-lasting sociopolitical effects on both.