JKBOSE Class 12th Information Practice Notes | Study Materials

JKBOSE Class 12th Information Practice PDF Notes Download 

JKBOSE Class 12th Information Practice Notes PDF Download
JKBOSE Class 12th Information Practice Notes PDF Download. If you are the students of Jammu and Kashmir and are looking for important questions and Notes of Information Practice Subject then you are at right place. Get JKBOSE important Study Materials Notes of all the subjects for Class 12th in this site but in this article we will provide you Information Practice Notes for Class 12th. So keep visiting and get the free and best notes.   

JKBOSE Class 12th Information Technology Study Materials Notes Unitwise

Unit- 1 Computer Networking   
Introduction about Computer Networking: Computer networking is the practice of connecting multiple computers and devices together to facilitate communication and the sharing of resources. It involves the design implementation management and maintenance of networks that enable the exchange of data and information between computers and other networked devices.

The primary goal of computer networking is to establish reliable and efficient communication channels between devices allowing them to transmit and receive data in various forms such as text images audio and video. Networks can be classified into different types based on their size and scope ranging from small local area networks (LANs) within a single building or office to large-scale wide area networks (WANs) that span across cities countries or even continents.

Computer networks are typically comprised of several components including:
  • Nodes: These are the devices connected to the network such as computers servers printers routers switches and mobile devices. Each node has a unique identifier such as an IP (Internet Protocol) address which allows it to be recognized on the network.
  • Links: Also known as communication channels links are the physical or wireless connections between nodes through which data is transmitted. These links can be wired such as Ethernet cables or fiber optic cables or wireless like Wi-Fi or cellular networks.
  • Network protocols: These are a set of rules and conventions that govern the communication between devices on a network. Protocols define how data is formatted transmitted received and interpreted ensuring compatibility and reliable data transfer.
  • Network topologies: Topology refers to the arrangement or structure of the network defining how nodes and links are interconnected. Common network topologies include bus star ring mesh and hybrid topologies each with its advantages and disadvantages.
Computer networking enables a wide range of applications and services including internet access email file sharing video conferencing online gaming cloud computing and more. It plays a crucial role in modern society empowering individuals businesses and organizations to collaborate access information and utilize resources efficiently across different locations.

As technology continues to evolve computer networking remains at the forefront of innovation enabling advancements in areas such as Internet of Things (IoT) 5G connectivity virtual private networks (VPNs) software-defined networking (SDN) and cybersecurity.    

Unit- 2 Cyber Security    
Introduction about Cyber Security:  Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting computer systems networks and data from unauthorized access damage theft and other digital threats. As our world becomes increasingly interconnected and reliant on technology the importance of cybersecurity has grown exponentially.

The field of cybersecurity encompasses various measures strategies and technologies designed to safeguard computers servers mobile devices electronic systems and digital information from cyber threats. These threats can include malware phishing attacks hacking attempts ransomware data breaches and more.

The primary objective of cybersecurity is to ensure the confidentiality integrity and availability of digital assets. Confidentiality refers to protecting sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure while integrity involves maintaining the accuracy and trustworthiness of data. Availability focuses on ensuring that systems and information are accessible and usable when needed.

Cybersecurity professionals employ a wide range of techniques and tools to safeguard digital environments. This includes implementing robust security protocols employing encryption algorithms using firewalls and intrusion detection systems conducting regular vulnerability assessments and penetration testing and establishing secure authentication mechanisms.

Moreover cybersecurity is not limited to the technical aspects alone. It also encompasses user awareness and education as human error and social engineering attacks are significant vulnerabilities. Educating individuals about best practices such as strong password management recognizing phishing attempts and exercising caution while sharing personal information online is crucial in maintaining a secure digital environment.

The importance of cybersecurity extends beyond individual users and organizations. It plays a vital role in safeguarding critical infrastructure such as power grids transportation systems and healthcare networks which are increasingly reliant on interconnected technologies.

Cybersecurity is a critical discipline that addresses the challenges posed by evolving digital threats. By implementing robust security measures and promoting awareness individuals organizations and societies can mitigate risks and protect valuable information in our increasingly digital world.    

Unit- 3 Internet & Web Application Development    
Introduction about Internet : The internet short for "Interconnected Network" is a vast global system of interconnected computer networks that allows for the transfer and sharing of information. It is a worldwide network of computers and servers that communicate with each other using a common set of protocols. The internet has revolutionized the way we communicate access information conduct business and engage with the world.

The origins of the internet can be traced back to the 1960s when the United States Department of Defense created a network called ARPANET to connect various research institutions and military organizations. Over time this network expanded and evolved into what we now know as the internet.

The internet operates on a decentralized model meaning there is no central authority or control. Instead it relies on a distributed network architecture where individual computers known as hosts are connected to one another through routers and switches. This decentralized structure enables data to be routed efficiently across the network ensuring that information can flow even if certain parts of the network are disrupted.

One of the fundamental technologies that powers the internet is the Internet Protocol (IP) which provides the addressing scheme for devices connected to the network. IP allows data packets to be sent from a source to a destination over the internet. Other key protocols such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) enable reliable and efficient transmission of data across the network.

The internet has become an essential part of our daily lives offering a wide range of services and applications. It provides access to an immense amount of information allowing individuals to search for knowledge conduct research and stay updated on current events. Communication has been transformed through email instant messaging voice and video calls and social media platforms. E-commerce has thrived enabling online shopping and financial transactions. Entertainment has also been revolutionized with streaming services online gaming and digital content distribution.

The internet continues to evolve and expand with new technologies and innovations being developed regularly. This includes the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT) which connects everyday objects to the internet enabling them to communicate and share data. Additionally advancements such as 5G networks promise faster and more reliable internet connectivity while artificial intelligence and machine learning are being integrated into various internet-based applications.

However with the immense benefits the internet offers there are also challenges and concerns. Issues such as privacy cybersecurity misinformation and digital divide need to be addressed to ensure a safe and inclusive internet for all users.

In summary the internet is a global network that has transformed the way we connect communicate and access information. It has become an integral part of modern society shaping various aspects of our lives and opening up new possibilities for innovation and collaboration.    

Unit- 4 Visual Basic Programming    
Introduction about Visual Basic:  Visual Basic (VB) is a popular programming language that provides a graphical development environment for building a wide range of applications from simple utilities to complex enterprise software. It was originally developed by Microsoft in the early 1990s as a tool to create user interfaces for Windows-based applications. Since then Visual Basic has evolved through several versions with Visual Basic .NET (VB.NET) being the most recent iteration.

Visual Basic is known for its simplicity and ease of use making it an ideal choice for beginners who are new to programming. It follows a structured event-driven programming paradigm where programs respond to user actions or system events by executing blocks of code called event handlers.

The Visual Basic development environment provides a visual designer known as the Integrated Development Environment (IDE) which allows developers to create user interfaces by dragging and dropping controls onto a form. These controls such as buttons text boxes and menus can be easily manipulated and customized using the properties window.

Visual Basic supports object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts allowing developers to create and manipulate objects define classes and use inheritance and polymorphism. It also provides a rich set of built-in functions and libraries for performing common tasks such as file I/O database access and mathematical operations.

One of the key features of Visual Basic is its ability to create applications with a graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI allows users to interact with the program through intuitive controls and visual elements enhancing the user experience. Visual Basic applications can range from small standalone programs to large-scale enterprise applications.

Over the years Visual Basic has been widely adopted in various domains including business software database applications game development and web programming. While its popularity has somewhat waned in recent years it still remains a relevant and widely used language particularly for maintaining and extending existing Visual Basic applications.

In summary Visual Basic is a versatile programming language that offers a user-friendly environment for creating Windows-based applications with graphical user interfaces. Its simplicity ease of use and extensive library support have made it a popular choice for both novice and experienced programmers.    

Unit- 5 Fundamentals of RDBMS   
Relational Database Management System: RDBMS (Relational Database Management System) is a powerful and widely used technology for managing structured data. It offers numerous benefits such as data integrity data consistency and data security. RDBMS organizes data into tables with predefined relationships allowing efficient querying retrieval and manipulation of data using the structured query language (SQL). It provides ACID (Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) properties ensuring reliable and transactional data operations. RDBMS supports concurrent access by multiple users facilitating collaborative work and scalability. It enables data modeling normalization and efficient indexing optimizing data storage and retrieval. Overall RDBMS plays a crucial role in modern data management making it easier to store retrieve and analyze data effectively.    

JKBOSE Class 12th All Subject Notes

 Class 12th English Notes

 Class 12th History Notes

 Class 12th Economics Notes

 Class 12th Geography Notes

 Class 12th Poltical Science Notes

 Class 12th Education Notes

 Class 12th Education Notes

 Class 12th  Sociology  Notes

 Class 12th Mathamatics Notes

 Class 12th Statistics Notes

 Class 12th Islamic Stadies Notes

 Class 12th Computer Notes

 Class 12th Information Practice Notes

 Class 12th English Literature Notes

 Class 12th Environmental Science Notes

 Class 12th Physics Notes

 Class 12th Chemistry Notes

 Class 12th Biology Notes

 Class 12th Business Stadies Notes

 Class 12th   Accountancy Notes

 Class 12th  Entrepreneurship Notes

 Class 12th  Physical Education Notes

 Class 12th  Urdu Notes

JKBOSE Class 12th Information Practice Important Textual Questions

What is computer networking?

Computer networking is the practice of connecting multiple computers and devices together to facilitate communication and the sharing of resources.

How are computer networks classified?

Computer networks can be classified into different types based on their size and scope, ranging from small local area networks (LANs) to large-scale wide area networks (WANs).

What are the components of a computer network?

A computer network typically comprises nodes (devices connected to the network), links (physical or wireless connections between nodes), network protocols (rules governing communication and network topologies (arrangement of nodes and links).

What is cybersecurity?

Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting computer systems, networks and data from unauthorized access, damage, theft and other digital threats.

What are the benefits of using a relational database management system (RDBMS)?

RDBMS offers benefits such as data integrity, data consistency, data security, efficient querying and retrieval using SQL, ACID properties for reliable data operations, support for concurrent access and optimized data storage and retrieval through data modeling and indexing.

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