JKBOSE Class 12th Poltical Science PDF Notes | Study Materials

JKBOSE Class 12th Poltical Science Notes

JKBOSE Class 12th Poltical Science Notes

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JKBOSE Class 12th Poltical Science Study Materials Notes Unitwise

Unit- 1 Cold War Era in World Politics   

Introduction and Objectives
The Cold War was a political and ideological conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union that lasted from the end of World War II in 1945 until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The term "Cold" referred to the fact that there was no direct military conflict between the two superpowers but rather a sustained period of tension, competition and proxy wars fought by their respective allies.

At the core of the Cold War was a clash of ideologies. The United States represented capitalism, democracy, and individual freedom while the Soviet Union represented communism, collectivism and state control. The conflict was driven by a desire for global dominance and the fear that the other side would gain the upper hand. This led to a massive arms race with both sides building up their nuclear arsenals and engaging in a dangerous game of brinkmanship.

The Cold War had a profound impact on world politics shaping international relations and influencing domestic policies around the globe. The two superpowers competed for influence in regions such as Europe, Asia and Latin America often through indirect means such as supporting opposing sides in civil wars or backing client states. The conflict also led to a polarization of the world with countries aligning themselves with either the United States or the Soviet Union. The end of the Cold War marked a major turning point in world history leading to the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of the United States as the world's sole superpower.  

Unit- 2 Disintegration of the ‘’ Second World ‘’ and the Collapse of Bipolarity   

Introduction and Objectives
The term "Second World" was used to describe the countries that fell under the communist sphere of influence during the Cold War was primarily led by the Soviet Union. However by the 1980s, the Soviet Union's economy was suffering from stagnation while its military spending continued to increase. This led to a rise in public discontent which was compounded by the reform policies of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.

In 1989, the disintegration of the Soviet Union's control over its satellite states began with the fall of the Berlin Wall which had separated communist East Germany from capitalist West Germany since 1961. This was followed by the collapse of the Soviet Union itself in 1991, which led to the emergence of independent nations that were previously part of the Soviet bloc.

The collapse of the Soviet Union marked the end of bipolarity in international politics which had characterized the world since the end of World War II. The United States emerged as the sole superpower, with its military and economic dominance unchallenged. This led to a unipolar world order which was marked by US-led interventions and a push for globalization.

Unit- 3 US Dominance in World Politics   

Introduction and Objectives
The United States has been a dominant force in world politics for much of the 20th century and beyond. The country's dominance can be attributed to various factors including its economic, military and political power.

One of the primary factors behind the United States' dominance is its robust economy. The US has the world's largest economy with a GDP that is more than twice the size of its nearest rival China. The country's economic strength gives it significant leverage in global affairs including the ability to exert influence over other countries through trade, investment and aid.

The United States military might is also a significant contributor to its dominance in world politics. The country has the worlds largest and most advanced military with a presence in many regions of the world. Its military capabilities give it the ability to project power and influence beyond its borders including through military alliances and interventions.

Furthermore, the United States has played a leading role in the establishment of global institutions and norms including the United Nations, World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Its political and diplomatic influence has been essential in shaping global governance and promoting democracy, human rights and other shared values.

Unit- 4 Alternative Centres of Economic and Political Power   

Introduction and Objectives
Alternative centers of economic and political power refer to non-traditional sources of power that compete with established institutions for influence and control. These centers can emerge from a variety of sectors such as multinational corporations, non-governmental organizations, regional alliances and social movements.

In recent years the rise of emerging economies such as China and India has challenged the dominance of traditional Western powers in the global economy. As a result, alternative centers of economic power have emerged and creating a more complex and multipolar global economic landscape.

In the political arena, social movements and non-governmental organizations have gained influence in shaping policy and decision-making processes and  particularly in areas such as human rights, environmental protection and social justice.

Overall, the emergence of alternative centers of power reflects a growing recognition that traditional institutions may not always represent the interests of all stakeholders and that diverse voices and perspectives are necessary for a more inclusive and equitable global society.

Unit- 5 South Asia in the Post – Cold War Era    

Introduction and Objectives
South Asia in the post-Cold War era witnessed significant political, economic and social changes. The end of the Cold War in 1991 marked a turning point in the region's history as it led to the emergence of new economic and political alliances including the formation of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).

During this period the South Asian countries also experienced economic liberalization, privatization and globalization. India, Pakistan and Bangladesh implemented economic reforms that aimed to improve their economies, attract foreign investment and increase their competitiveness.

However the region faced several challenges including poverty, terrorism, political instability and ethnic conflicts. The rise of militant groups such as the Taliban in Afghanistan and the increasing tensions between India and Pakistan over Kashmir were among the major concerns during this period.

Unit- 6 International Organizations in a Unipolar World   

Introduction and Objectives
In a unipolar world, where one country dominates global affairs and  international organizations play a crucial role in maintaining global stability and promoting cooperation among nations. These organizations such as the United Nations, World Trade Organization and International Monetary Fund provide a forum for countries to come together and address issues of mutual concern ranging from economic development to climate change.

However, in a unipolar world the dominant country may also seek to use these organizations to advance its own interests potentially at the expense of other nations. This can lead to tensions and disagreements within international organizations as member states may have conflicting priorities and agendas.

Despite these challenges international organizations remain important mechanisms for promoting global cooperation and resolving disputes peacefully. They can also provide a means for smaller and less powerful nations to have their voices heard and to influence global decision-making. In a unipolar world, effective international organizations are essential for promoting a more balanced and inclusive global order.

Unit- 7 Security in Contemporary World   

Introduction and Objectives
Security in the contemporary world refers to the measures taken to ensure the safety and protection of individuals organizations, and nations from various threats and risks. With the advancement of technology, globalization and the rise of non-state actors, security challenges have become more complex and multifaceted. The threats to security can be in the form of cyber attacks, terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, pandemics, climate change and other natural disasters.

To address these challenges the governments and organizations have developed a range of security measures including intelligence gathering, border controls, surveillance, diplomatic negotiations, military operations and public awareness campaigns. Additionally there has been a growing emphasis on international cooperation and multilateralism to tackle security challenges that require a collective response.

However the security measures can also raise concerns about privacy, civil liberties and human rights. Therefore it is essential to strike a balance between security and individual freedoms to ensure a just and equitable society. Overall the security in the contemporary world requires a comprehensive and adaptive approach that takes into account the evolving nature of the threats and challenges.

Unit- 8 Globalization and its Critics    

Introduction and Objectives
Globalization refers to the increasing interconnectedness and interdependence of economies, societies and cultures across the world. Its supporters argue that it has led to greater economic growth, increased cultural exchange and improved living standards in many countries. However the globalization has also faced criticism from various groups.

Critics of globalization argue that it has led to growing income inequality, job displacement in developed countries, exploitation of workers in developing countries and damage to the environment. They also criticize the power and influence of multinational corporations who they argue prioritize profits over the well-being of people and the planet.

Others argue that globalization has led to cultural homogenization and the loss of diversity in language, music and other aspects of culture. They believe that the spread of Western culture has eroded local traditions and values.

Overall the debate over globalization and its impact on the world is complex and multifaceted with both benefits and drawbacks. As the world continues to become more interconnected it is important to address the concerns of its critics while maximizing the benefits of globalization for all people and the planet.

Unit- 9 Environmental and Natural Resources in Global Politics   

Introduction and Objectives
Environmental and natural resources play a crucial role in global politics. The management and distribution of these resources have the potential to cause conflicts and shape relations between nations. Climate change, biodiversity loss and resource depletion are some of the key challenges that the international community faces.

Environmental issues are not just limited to individual countries but they have global implications. Pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from one country can affect the climate and ecosystems of others. As a result international cooperation and coordination are essential in addressing these issues.

In addition natural resources such as water, land and minerals are often a source of tension between countries particularly in regions where these resources are scarce. Access to these resources and their control can have significant political and economic consequences.

Unit- 10 Nation – Building and Its Problems   

Introduction and Objectives
Nation-building refers to the process of creating a sense of national identity and unity among diverse groups of people who share a common geography, history and culture. This process involves the development of institutions, systems and policies that promote social cohesion, economic development and political stability.

However the nation-building can be a complex and challenging process with many obstacles to overcome. One of the biggest problems is ethnic and cultural diversity which can lead to tensions and conflicts between different groups. This can make it difficult to create a sense of national identity that is inclusive and representative of all citizens.

Another challenge is the legacy of colonialism which has left many nations with weak institutions and limited resources. This can make it difficult to develop effective policies and systems that can promote economic development and political stability.

Other problems can include corruption, poverty and inequality which can hinder the development of strong institutions and systems. Addressing these challenges requires a long-term commitment to building strong institutions, promoting economic development and creating a sense of shared national identity and purpose.

Unit- 11 Era of One – Party Dominance   

Introduction and Objectives
The era of one-party dominance refers to a period in a countrys political history when one political party has a dominant position in government and remains in power for an extended period. This situation can arise due to various reasons including a lack of viable opposition parties, a strong economic or political base or through manipulation of the political system.

During the era of one-party dominance the ruling party has significant control over government policies, decision-making processes, and institutions often resulting in a lack of accountability and transparency. This can lead to corruption, nepotism and a disregard for the rule of law.

However the era of one-party dominance can also bring stability, continuity and effective governance. When a dominant party has a clear vision and is committed to the countrys development it can achieve significant progress in areas such as infrastructure development, social welfare and economic growth.

Nonetheless the lack of political competition and checks and balances can be detrimental to democratic values making it crucial for opposition parties and civil society to maintain pressure on the ruling party and ensure accountability and transparency.

Unit- 12 Politics of Planned Development   

Introduction and Objectives
The politics of planned development refers to the processes and power dynamics involved in designing and implementing development policies and programs in a planned manner. It involves decisions made by governments, international organizations, private companies and other stakeholders regarding the allocation of resources, investments and infrastructure projects to promote economic growth, social welfare and environmental sustainability.

The politics of planned development can be contentious as different actors may have conflicting interests, priorities and values. For example governments may prioritize economic growth and industrialization over environmental protection and social equity, while local communities may prioritize their cultural heritage and autonomy over external investments and development projects.

In many cases, planned development has been criticized for being top-down, technocratic and insensitive to local needs and aspirations. This has led to a growing recognition of the importance of participatory approaches to development which involve active engagement of local communities, civil society organizations and marginalized groups in the planning, implementation and monitoring of development policies and projects.

Unit- 13 India’s External Relations   

Introduction and Objectives
India's external relations have evolved significantly over the years. Since gaining independence from British rule in 1947 India has pursued a foreign policy based on non-alignment seeking to maintain friendly relations with all nations. However, India has also been proactive in building relationships with other countries, particularly in the areas of trade, security and culture.

India has established strong ties with neighboring countries such as Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. It has also formed strategic partnerships with major powers such as the United States, Russia, Japan and Israel. India is a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement and the BRICS group of emerging economies and it has played an active role in the United Nations and other international organizations.

India's external relations have been influenced by its historical and cultural ties with other nations as well as its strategic interests. India's relationships with Pakistan and China have been complex with occasional tensions and conflicts. Overall India's foreign policy aims to promote regional stability, economic development and global cooperation while safeguarding its national interests and sovereignty.

Unit- 14 Challenge to and Restoration of Congress System   

Introduction and Objectives

The Congress System also known as the Concert of Europe was a political arrangement that emerged after the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1815. It was a system of international relations between the major European powers including Austria, Prussia, Russia and Great Britain aimed at maintaining peace and stability on the continent.

However, the Congress System faced several challenges in the 19th century including the rise of nationalism which led to the unification of Italy and Germany and the emergence of new great powers such as the United States and Japan. These challenges eventually led to the breakdown of the Congress System and the outbreak of World War I in 1914.

Following the war the Congress System was replaced by the League of Nations which was tasked with maintaining international peace and security. However the failure of the League to prevent World War II led to the restoration of the Congress System in the form of the United Nations which remains the primary international forum for resolving disputes and promoting global cooperation to this day. Despite this the Congress System as a political arrangement has not been formally reinstated and has been replaced by a more complex and diverse international system.

Unit- 15 Crisis of the Constitutional Order   

Introduction and Objectives
A crisis of the constitutional order refers to a situation where there is a breakdown or erosion of the fundamental principles and structures that underpin a constitutional system. This can occur due to various reasons such as political instability, social unrest, corruption or abuse of power.

In such a crisis the institutions that are designed to uphold the rule of law such as the judiciary, the legislature and the executive that may fail to function effectively or become co-opted by those in power. This can result in a loss of trust in the government, the erosion of civil liberties and a breakdown of democratic norms and values.

To address a constitutional crisis it is essential to restore the legitimacy of the institutions of government and the rule of law. This can involve political reforms such as strengthening accountability mechanisms promoting transparency and inclusivity and ensuring that the institutions of government are independent and impartial.

Unit- 16  Regional Aspirations and Conflicts 

Introduction and Objectives
Regional aspirations refer to the desires and ambitions of people or groups in a particular geographic area for greater autonomy, self-governance or independence. Such aspirations often arise when there is a perceived neglect or marginalization of a particular region by the central government or when people feel that their distinct cultural, linguistic or ethnic identities are not adequately represented or respected by the state.

Regional conflicts on the other hand are disputes or tensions that arise between different regions or groups within a country. These conflicts can be driven by a range of factors including economic inequality, resource competition, historical grievances or cultural and identity differences.

Regional aspirations and conflicts can have significant political, social and economic consequences for a country. If they are not effectively managed they can lead to political instability, violence and even the disintegration of the state. However if these aspirations and conflicts are addressed through dialogue and negotiation they can provide opportunities for greater decentralization, democratization and inclusive governance which can contribute to sustainable peace and development.

Unit- 17 Rise of New Social Movement   

Introduction and Objectives
The rise of new social movements refers to the emergence of diverse, non-traditional groups advocating for social, cultural, economic and political change in the latter half of the 20th century. Unlike earlier social movements that primarily focused on class-based struggles or single-issue campaigns, new social movements are characterized by their broad-based, intersectional approach that seeks to challenge existing power structures, promote inclusive and democratic societies.

New social movements have been fueled by a range of factors including globalization, rapid technological change and shifting cultural norms and values. They have also been influenced by social movements from the past as well as emerging social issues such as climate change and LGBTQ rights.

These movements have often relied on social media and other digital technologies to mobilize supporters and spread their messages. They have also challenged traditional forms of organization and leadership favoring more decentralized and participatory models.

Unit- 18 Recent Developments in Indian Politics   

Introduction and Objectives
There have been several recent developments in Indian politics that have garnered attention both nationally and globally.

One of the most significant developments has been the ongoing farmers protest which began in November 2020 against the new farm laws introduced by the central government. The protests have seen thousands of farmers camping at the borders of Delhi and demanding the repeal of the laws.

Another major development has been the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic that has swept across India overwhelming the healthcare system and resulting in a significant loss of life. The handling of the crisis by the central government and several state governments has come under criticism, leading to political debates and calls for accountability.

Additionally, several state elections have taken place in recent months including in West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala with the ruling parties in these states retaining power. The results of these elections have implications for the national political landscape and the upcoming 2024 general elections.

Furthermore, the recent controversy over the alleged illegal surveillance of opposition politicians, journalists and activists using Israeli spyware has raised concerns about the state of democracy and freedom of speech in India.

JKBOSE Class 12th All Subject Notes

 Class 12th English Notes

 Class 12th History Notes

 Class 12th Economics Notes

 Class 12th Geography Notes

 Class 12th Poltical Science Notes

 Class 12th Education Notes

 Class 12th Education Notes

 Class 12th  Sociology  Notes

 Class 12th Mathamatics Notes

 Class 12th Statistics Notes

 Class 12th Islamic Stadies Notes

 Class 12th Computer Notes

 Class 12th Information Practice Notes

 Class 12th English Literature Notes

 Class 12th Environmental Science Notes

 Class 12th Physics Notes

 Class 12th Chemistry Notes

 Class 12th Biology Notes

 Class 12th Business Stadies Notes

 Class 12th   Accountancy Notes

 Class 12th  Entrepreneurship Notes

 Class 12th  Physical Education Notes

 Class 12th  Urdu Notes
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