Understanding J&K Economy Class 10th Economics Text Questions Answer | JKBOSE NOTES

Understanding J&K Economy Notes

Understanding J&K Economy Notes JKBOSE Class 12th Economy

JKBOSE Class 12th Understanding J&K Economy Notes PDF Download. If you are the students of Jammu and Kashmir and are looking for important questions and Notes of Unit 1 : Understanding J&K Economy
 then you are at right place. Get JKBOSE important Study Materials Notes of all the subjects for Class 12th in this site but in this article we will provide you Understanding J&K Economy Notes for Class 12th. So keep visiting and get the free and best notes.

Understanding J&K Economy Text Questions Notes JKBOSE Class 12th Economy

Q.1. Name major forest based raw material supplied from the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

Ans: Timber is the main forest-based raw resource exported from Jammu & Kashmir. The state is renowned for having abundant forest resources, and lumber is one of the state's most valued natural resources. It is widely utilised in many different industries, including building, making furniture, and making paper.

Q.2. Write about qualities of major fruits produced in Jammu and Kashmir.

Ans: The main fruits grown in Jammu and Kashmir are highly prized due to a number of characteristics. These attributes include, among others:
  • Apples: Apple orchards are well known in Jammu and Kashmir. The region is renowned for its great taste, crisp texture, and rich flavour of its apples. The great quality of these apples is a result of the fertile land and cold environment.
  • Apricots: The apricot is another fruit that is very popular in Jammu and Kashmir. These fruits are renowned for their great nutritional value, brilliant orange colour, and sweet and tangy flavour. Apricots are frequently used in a variety of sweets, preserves, and culinary preparations.
  • Cherries: Cherries from Jammu and Kashmir are renowned for their sweet flavour and juicy texture. The production of cherries of superior quality is made possible by the region's favourable climate and soil conditions.
  • Pears: Furthermore, the state is renowned for its tasty pears. The pears produced in Jammu and Kashmir are flavorful, juicy, and aromatic. They are frequently eaten uncooked or added to desserts and preserves.
  • Walnuts: Walnut production is largely centred in Jammu and Kashmir. The region's walnuts are renowned for their size, flavour, and nutritional worth. They are exported as well as employed in a variety of culinary applications.

Q.3. Write a short note on handicrafts and handloom industry in the state.

Ans: In Jammu and Kashmir, the handicrafts and handloom industries are a significant economic sector that highlight the artistic talent and cultural history of the area. It is essential for creating jobs and boosting the economy of the state. The following are some important details regarding the state's handicraft and handloom industry:
  • Handicrafts: The state of Jammu and Kashmir is renowned for its fine handcrafted goods, which include embroidered fabrics, carpets, shawls, objects made of paper mache, woodwork, and metalwork. These handicrafts are made by skilled artisans utilising age-old methods that have been passed down through the centuries. Through both home and foreign markets, the sector draws tourists and makes money.
  • Handlooms: The state is well known for its high-quality handcrafted goods, particularly its textiles and shawls. The exquisite fleece of the Changthangi goat is used to make the highly prized pashmina shawls.
  • Employment and Preservation of Culture: Many artisans especially in rural regions have employment prospects in the handicrafts and handloom industries. It aids in the preservation of cultural heritage, traditional crafts and skills. Through training programmes, financial support and marketing campaigns, the government and numerous organisations help the industry.

Q.4. Identity five each metallic and non-metallic mineral resources found in J&K?

Ans: Metallic mineral resources found in Jammu and Kashmir include:
  • Copper: Copper ore deposits are substantial in Jammu and Kashmir. The copper mines in Jammu's Khetri area are well-known.
  • Lead: Deposits of zinc ore can be found in Jammu & Kashmir, particularly in the Zawar area.
  • Zinc: Several areas of the state, especially the Zawar region, contain lead deposits.
  • Gold: In some parts of Jammu and Kashmir, gold resources have been found, albeit production levels are still quite modest.
  • Silver: Although the state has silver ore reserves, the output is only moderate.

Non-metallic mineral resources found in Jammu and Kashmir include:
  • Limestone: Limestone is a plentiful resource in the state and is used in several sectors, including the manufacture of cement.
  • Gypsum: Jammu and Kashmir is home to gypsum deposits, which are used in the building sector.
  • Dolomite: The state contains dolomite, which is used to make fertiliser and refractory bricks.
  • Bauxite: Despite very modest production, bauxite resources may be found in Jammu & Kashmir.
  • Coal: In some areas of Jammu and Kashmir, there are coal resources, however the state's coal reserves are not as large as those in other parts of India.

Q.5 What is the role of service sector in the economic development of the state?

Ans: The development of Jammu and Kashmir's economy has been significantly influenced by the service sector. The following are some of the sector's major contributions:
  • Tourism: The tourism industry in Jammu and Kashmir is extremely dependent on it. Numerous domestic and foreign visitors are drawn to the state's scenic beauty, cultural legacy, and religious places. The economy of the state is greatly impacted by tourism-related services as hotels, transportation, travel agencies, and tour operators.
  • Information Technology (IT): In Jammu and Kashmir, the IT industry has been expanding significantly, boosting the state's economy. Businesses involved in information technology (IT), software development, and business process outsourcing (BPO) create jobs and boost GDP.
  • Financial Services: Various financial services, such as banking, insurance, and investment, are included in the service sector. These services include funding, financial management, and risk mitigation strategies to aid in the expansion of other industries.
  • Healthcare: The health of the state's inhabitants is significantly influenced by the healthcare industry. Healthcare service providers and job creators include hospitals, clinics, pharmaceutical firms, and medical practitioners.
  • Education: Schools, colleges and universities all fall under the umbrella of the education sector, which is a significant part of the service industry. It aids in the growth of human capital, the improvement of skills, and the diffusion of knowledge.
The expansion and development of the service sector in Jammu and Kashmir contributes to the creation of jobs, income, and general economic growth, diversifying the state's economy beyond more conventional industries like manufacturing and agriculture.

Q.6. Identify major agricultural crops grown in Jammu and Kashmir. Distribute these crops according to Kharif and Rabi seasons?

Ans: Jammu and Kashmir being a diverse region with varying climatic conditions, cultivates a wide range of agricultural crops. The major crops grown in the region can be classified into two main seasons: Kharif and Rabi.

Kharif Season Crops:

  • Rice: Rice is the primary Kharif crop in Jammu and Kashmir and it is cultivated extensively in the Jammu region. The fertile plains and abundant water resources in the region support rice cultivation.
  • Maize: Maize is another significant Kharif crop grown in Jammu and Kashmir. It is cultivated in various parts of the region including the Jammu and Kashmir divisions.
  • Millets: Different types of millets, such as finger millet (ragi) and pearl millet (bajra) are grown during the Kharif season. These crops are mainly cultivated in the drier regions of Jammu and Kashmir including the Leh and Kargil districts.
  • Pulses: Various pulses, including green gram, black gram and kidney beans are grown during the Kharif season. These pulses contribute to the regional food security and are cultivated in different parts of the state.

Rabi Season Crops:

  • Wheat: In Jammu and Kashmir, wheat is the main Rabi crop. Both the Jammu and Kashmir divisions farm it, and it is essential for supplying the food needs of the area.
  • Barley: Another significant crop grown in Jammu and Kashmir during the Rabi season is barley. It is mostly grown at higher elevations in the Kashmir Valley and specific regions of Ladakh.
  • Mustard: In the Rabi growing season, mustard is a widely grown oilseed crop. It is cultivated throughout Jammu and Kashmir, especially in the plains and lower slopes.
  • Potatoes: A crucial crop for Rabi in the area is the potato. They are grown in regions with favourable climates and provide a sizable portion of farmers revenue.
It's crucial to remember that these crops are not seasonal in nature, and because the microclimates in different regions of Jammu and Kashmir vary, there may be some overlap in the times when they are cultivated.

Q.7 Write down the basic objectives of forest policy of Jammu and Kashmir?

Ans: The Jammu and Kashmiri government's forest policy attempts to accomplish a number of goals to ensure sustainable forest management, biodiversity preservation, and the welfare of local residents. The following are the main goals of the forest policy in Jammu and Kashmir:

  • Conservation of Forests: The preservation and protection of forests, including the maintenance of the current forest cover, the avoidance of deforestation, and the promotion of afforestation and reforestation efforts, are the main goals.
  • Sustainable Forest Management: To secure the long-term ecological, economic, and social advantages gained from forests, the policy places an emphasis on sustainable forest management techniques. To preserve forest production and reduce adverse environmental effects, it involves careful planning, monitoring, and scientific management of the forest.
  • Biodiversity Conservation: The goal of the strategy is to protect the woods of Jammu and Kashmir's rich biodiversity. This entails putting policies in place to stop the illegal wildlife trade and poaching as well as to protect endangered species, preserve ecosystems, and promote ecosystem restoration.
  • Watershed Protection: Forests are essential for preserving water supplies and controlling the hydrological cycle. To guarantee a steady supply of clean water for ecological and human requirements, the forest policy places a strong emphasis on safeguarding watersheds, catchment regions, and water sources.
  • Socio-economic Development: The local communities that depend on trees for their lives are valued in the forest policy. It strives to improve their socioeconomic circumstances by promoting community forestry projects, developing sustainable forest-based companies, and distributing benefits from forest resources fairly.
  • Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: The forest strategy of Jammu and Kashmir incorporates strategies for carbon sequestration, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and adaptation to changing climatic circumstances in light of the worldwide challenge of climate change. Incorporating climate-resilient practises into forest management and encouraging agroforestry and forest-based carbon projects are a few examples of how to do this.
  • Institutional Strengthening and Governance:The policy is concentrated on developing governance methods for managing forests, institutional frameworks, and capacity building. It seeks to improve communication between multiple agencies, promote community involvement, and guarantee transparent and accountable decision-making.

Q.8 What is copper ore? Write down the names of places where copper ore is found in Jammu and Kashmir?

Ans: The natural mineral deposit that contains copper in varying quantities is referred to as copper ore. It is a major supply of copper, an important industrial metal utilised in many different uses like manufacturing, construction, and electrical wiring.

While the overall deposits of copper ore in Jammu and Kashmir are very small, copper ore is discovered there in some places. The primary locations in Jammu and Kashmir where copper ore resources have been found are:

  • Rakhi-Hakipatan Area: Major copper ore reserves can be found in this region, which is part of the Udhampur district in Jammu division. Particularly the Rakhi mine's copper ore deposits are well known.
  • Khetri Area: Jammu and Kashmir shares a boundary with the Khetri region in Rajasthan's Jhunjhunu state. From mines like Khetri, Kolihan, and Chandmari, copper ore is extracted in this important copper mining region.
Although Jammu & Kashmir possesses a small amount of copper ore resources, the area is not well recognised for its extensive copper mining. Compared to other regions of India, mining and ore extraction of copper have been comparatively restricted in these locations.

Q.9. What are the major reasons for the slow growth of the handicrafts and handloom industry in the state?

Ans: There are a number of reasons why the handicrafts and handloom industries in Jammu and Kashmir have grown slowly. These elements have made it more difficult for the industry to grow, remain viable, and be competitive. The handicrafts and handloom industries in the state have grown slowly for a number of main reasons, including:

  • Limited Market Access: Beyond the local and regional levels, the industry has difficulties in gaining access to larger markets. The accessibility of handicraft and handloom products to national and international markets is constrained by inadequate infrastructure, especially transportation and logistics. Market access opportunities are further restricted by a lack of marketing assistance and little exposure to trade shows and exhibitions.
  • Technological Obsolescence: Modern technologies and methods have been sluggish to be adopted by the sector. Many weavers and craftspeople still use ancient techniques, which may lead to poor production rates, uneven quality, and a narrow range of available products. The industry's capacity to adapt to shifting consumer needs is hampered by the lack of technological breakthroughs.
  • Lack of Design Innovation: Products made through handiwork and handlooming must change to reflect shifting consumer tastes and market trends. However, the industry frequently struggles with a lack of design innovation, which results in a small selection of goods and monotonous designs. This has an impact on the industry's ability to compete and its ability to attract more customers.
  • Skill Development and Training: The expansion of the handicraft and handloom industries depends on the availability of competent artisans and weavers. The capacity building of craftsmen is hampered by restricted skill development efforts, poor training facilities, and a lack of exposure to new techniques. Their capacity to create high-quality, market-focused products is thus constrained.
  • Inadequate Financial Support: For craftspeople and weavers, obtaining financing is a huge difficulty. Small-scale producers find it challenging to make investments in infrastructure, raw materials, and technological advancements due to a lack of finance availability, high interest rates, and complicated loan application processes. The industry's efforts to expand and modernise are hampered by insufficient financial assistance.
  • Lack of Branding and Promotion: Jammu and Kashmir's handicrafts and handwoven goods frequently struggle with poor branding and advertising. To raise awareness and spur demand for their products, the industry needs efficient marketing tactics, such as product branding, web presence, and promotional programmes.
  • Competition from Machine-made Products: Machine-made goods, which frequently provide lower pricing and reliable quality, compete with handcrafted goods in the handloom and handicraft industries. The survival of traditional handcrafted goods is threatened by this competition, particularly when they are unable to stand out through distinctive designs and superior craftsmanship.
A comprehensive strategy incorporating assistance from the government, industry associations, and stakeholders is needed to address these issues. The handicrafts and handloom sector in Jammu and Kashmir can be revived by actions including enhanced market connections, investments in technology and design development, skill upgradation programmes, access to credit, and successful branding and marketing campaigns.

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